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Mutual Exclusion Within A Single Processor Linux Kernel

For any kernel to function in a sane manner it has to provide internal locking and protection of its own tables to prevent two processes updating them at once and for example allocating the same memory block. There are two strategies for this within current Unix and Unixlike kernels. Traditional unix systems from the earliest of days use a scheme of 'Coarse Grained Locking' where the entire kernel is protected as a small number of locks only. Some modern systems use fine grained locking. Because fine grained locking has more overhead it is normally used only on multiprocessor kernels and real time kernels. In a real time kernel the fine grained locking reduces the amount of time locks are held and reduces the critical (to real time programming at least) latency times.

Within the Linux kernel certain guarantees are made. No process running in kernel mode will be pre-empted by another kernel mode process unless it voluntarily sleeps. This ensures that blocks of kernel code are effectively atomic with respect to other processes and greatly simplifies many operation. Secondly interrupts may pre-empt a kernel running process, but will always return to that process. A process in kernel mode may disable interrupts on the processor and guarantee such an interruption will not occur. The final guarantee is that an interrupt will not be pre-empted by a kernel task. That is interrupts will run to completion or be pre-empted by other interrupts only.

The SMP kernel chooses to continue these basic guarantees in order to make initial implementation and deployment easier. A single lock is maintained across all processors. This lock is required to access the kernel space. Any processor may hold it and once it is held may also re-enter the kernel for interrupts and other services whenever it likes until the lock is relinquished. This lock ensures that a kernel mode process will not be pre-empted and ensures that blocking interrupts in kernel mode behaves correctly. This is guaranteed because only the processor holding the lock can be in kernel mode, only kernel mode processes can disable interrupts and only the processor holding the lock may handle an interrupt.

Such a choice is however poor for performance. In the longer term it is necessary to move to finer grained parallelism in order to get the best system performance. This can be done hierarchically by gradually refining the locks to cover smaller areas. With the current kernel highly CPU bound process sets perform well but I/O bound task sets can easily degenerate to near single processor performance levels. This refinement will be needed to get the best from Linux/SMP.




next up previous
Next: Changes To The Portable Up: No Title Previous: Background: The Intel MP

nashif@rz.uni-mannheim.de
Tue May 28 14:38:25 PST 1996